Minimally Sufficient Pandas

It might be because the official documentation contains plenty of examples that use it.

It also uses three fewer characters which entice the very laziest amongst us.

Guidance: Use the brackets for selecting a column of dataThe dot notation provides no additional functionality over the brackets and does not work in all situations.

Therefore, I never use it.

Its single advantage is three fewer keystrokes.

I suggest using only the brackets for selecting a single column of data.

Having just a single approach to this very common task will make your Pandas code much more consistent.

The deprecated ix indexer – never use itPandas allows you to select rows by either label or integer location.

This flexible dual selection capability is a great cause of confusion for beginners.

The ix indexer was created in the early days of Pandas to select rows and columns by both label and integer location.

This turned out to be quite ambiguous as Pandas row and column names can be both integers and strings.

To make selections explicit, theloc and iloc indexers were made available.

The loc indexer selects only by label while the iloc indexer selects only by integer location.

Although the ix indexer was versatile, it has been deprecated in favor of the loc and iloc indexers.

Guidance: Every trace of ix should be removed and replaced with loc or ilocSelection with at and iatTwo additional indexers, at and iat, exist that select a single cell of a DataFrame.

These provide a slight performance advantage over their analogous loc and ilocindexers.

But, they introduce the additional burden of having to remember what they do.

Also, for most data analyses, the increase in performance isn’t useful unless it’s being done at scale.

And if performance truly is an issue, then taking your data out of a DataFrame and into a NumPy array will give you a large performance gain.

Performance comparison iloc vs iat vs NumPyLet’s compare the perfomance of selecting a single cell with iloc, iat and a NumPy array.

Here we create a NumPy array with 100k rows and 5 columns containing random data.

We then create a DataFrame out of it and make the selections.

>>> import numpy as np>>> a = np.


rand(10 ** 5, 5)>>> df1 = pd.

DataFrame(a)>>> row = 50000>>> col = 3>>> %timeit df1.

iloc[row, col]13.

8 µs ± 3.

36 µs per loop>>> %timeit df1.

iat[row, col]7.

36 µs ± 927 ns per loop>>> %timeit a[row, col]232 ns ± 8.

72 ns per loopWhile iat is a little less than twice as fast asiloc, selection with a NumPy array is about 60x as fast.

So, if you really had an application that had performance requirements, you should be using NumPy directly and not Pandas.

Guidance: Use NumPy arrays if your application relies on performance for selecting a single cell of data and not at or iat.

Method DuplicationThere are multiple methods in Pandas that do the exact same thing.

Whenever two methods share the same exact underlying functionality, we say that they are aliases of each other.

Having duplication in a library is completely unnecessary, pollutes the namespace and forces analysts to remember one more bit of information about a library.

This next section covers several instances of duplication along with other instances of methods that are very similar to one another.

read_csv vs read_table duplicationOne example of duplication is with the read_csv and read_table functions.

They both do the same exact thing, read in data from a text file.

The only difference is that read_csv defaults the delimiter to a comma, while read_table uses tab as its default.

Let’s verify that read_csv and read_table are capable of producing the same results.

Here we use a sample of the public College Scoreboard dataset.

The equals method verifies whether two DataFrames have the exact same values.

>>> college = pd.


csv')>>> college.

head()>>> college2 = pd.


csv', delimiter=',')>>> college.

equals(college2)Trueread_table is getting deprecatedI made a post in the Pandas Github repo suggesting that a few functions and methods that I’d like to see deprecated.

The read_table function is getting deprecated and should never be used.

Guidance: Only use read_csv to read in delimitted text filesisna vs isnull and notna vs notnullThe isna and isnull methods both determine whether each value in the DataFrame is missing or not.

The result will always be a DataFrame (or Series) of all boolean values.

These methods are exactly the same.

We say that one is an alias of the other.

There is no need for both of them in the library.

The isna method was added more recently because the characters na are found in other missing value methods such as dropna and fillna.

Confusingly, Pandas uses NaN, None, and NaT as missing value representations and not NA.

notna and notnull are aliases of each other as well and simply return the opposite of isna.

There's no need for both of them.

Let’s verify that isna and isnull are aliases.

>>> college_isna = college.

isna()>>> college_isnull = college.

isnull()>>> college_isna.

equals(college_isnull)TrueI only use isna and notnaI use the methods that end in na to match the names of the other missing value methods dropna and fillna.

You can also avoid ever using notna since Pandas provides the inversion operator, ~ to invert boolean DataFrames.

Guidance: Use only isna and notnaArithmetic and Comparison Operators and their Corresponding MethodsAll arithmetic operators have corresponding methods that function similarly.

+ – add- – sub and subtract* – mul and multiply/ – div, divide and truediv** – pow// – floordiv% – modAll the comparison operators also have corresponding methods.

> – gt< – lt>= – ge<= – le== – eq!= – neLet’s select the undergraduate population column, ugds as a Series, add 100 to it and verify that both the plus operator its corresponding method, add, give the same result.

>>> ugds = college['ugds']>>> ugds_operator = ugds + 100>>> ugds_method = ugds.

add(100)>>> ugds_operator.

equals(ugds_method)TrueCalculating the z-scores of each schoolLet’s do a slightly more complex example.

Below, we set the index to be the institution name and then select both of the SAT columns.

We remove schools that do not provide these scores with dropna.

>>> college_idx = college.

set_index('instnm')>>> sats = college_idx[['satmtmid', 'satvrmid']].

dropna()>>> sats.

head()Let’s say we are interested in finding the z-score for each college’s SAT score.

To calculate this, we would need to subtract the mean and divide by the standard deviation.

Let’s first calculate the mean and standard deviation of each column.

>>> mean = sats.

mean()>>> meansatmtmid 530.

958615satvrmid 522.

775338dtype: float64>>> std = sats.

std()>>> stdsatmtmid 73.

645153satvrmid 68.

591051dtype: float64Let’s now use the arithmetic operators to complete the calculation.

>>> zscore_operator = (sats – mean) / std>>> zscore_operator.

head()Let’s repeat this with their corresponding methods and verify equality.

>>> zscore_methods = sats.


div(std)>>> zscore_operator.

equals(zscore_methods)TrueAn actual need for the methodSo far we haven’t seen an explicit need for the methods over the operators.

Let’s see an example where we absolutely need the method to complete the task.

The college dataset contains 9 consecutive columns holding the relative frequency of the undergraduate population by race.

The first column is ugds_white and the last ugds_unkn.

Let's select these columns now into their own DataFrame.

>>> college_race = college_idx.

loc[:, ‘ugds_white’:’ugds_unkn’]>>> college_race.

head()Let’s say we are interested in the raw count of the student population by race per school.

We need to multiply the total undergraduate population by each column.

Let’s select the ugds column as a Series.

>>> ugds = college_idx['ugds']>>> ugds.

head()instnmAlabama A & M University 4206.

0University of Alabama at Birmingham 11383.

0Amridge University 291.

0University of Alabama in Huntsville 5451.

0Alabama State University 4811.

0Name: ugds, dtype: float64We then multiply the college_race DataFrame by this Series.

Intuitively, this seems like it should work, but it does not.

Instead, it returns an enormous DataFrame with 7,544 columns.

>>> df_attempt = college_race * ugds>>> df_attempt.

head()>>> df_attempt.

shape(7535, 7544)Automatic alignment on the index and/or columnsWhenever an operation happens between two Pandas objects, an alignment always takes place between the index and/or columns of the two objects.

In the above operation, we multiplied the college_race DataFrame and the ugds Series together.

Pandas automatically (implicitly) aligned the columns of college_race to the index values of ugds.

None of the college_race columns match the index values of ugds.

Pandas does the alignment by performing an outer join keeping all values that match as well as those that do not.

This returns a ridiculous looking DataFrame with all missing values.

Scroll all the way to the right to view the original column names of the college_race DataFrame.

Change the direction of the alignment with a methodAll operators only work in a single way.

We cannot change how the multiplication operator, *, works.

Methods, on the other hand, can have parameters that we can use to control how the operation takes place.

Use the axis parameter of the mul methodAll the methods that correspond to the operators listed above have an axis parameter that allows us to change the direction of the alignment.

Instead of aligning the columns of a DataFrame to the index of a Series, we can align the index of a DataFrame to the index of a Series.

Let's do that now so that we can find the answer to our problem from above.

>>> df_correct = college_race.

mul(ugds, axis='index').

round(0)>>> df_correct.

head()By default, the axis parameter is set to 'columns'.

We changed it to 'index' so that a proper alignment took placeGuidance: Only use the arithmetic and comparison methods when absolutely necessary, otherwise use the operatorsThe arithmetic and comparison operators are more common and should be attempted first.

If you come across a case where the operator does not complete the task, then use the method.

Builtin Python functions vs Pandas methods with the same nameThere are a few DataFrame/Series methods that return the same result as a builtin Python function with the same name.

They are:summinmaxabsLet’s verify that they give the same result by testing them out on a single column of data.

We begin by selecting the non-missing values of the undergraduate student population column, ugds.

>>> ugds = college['ugds'].

dropna()>>> ugds.

head()0 4206.

01 11383.

02 291.

03 5451.

04 4811.

0Name: ugds, dtype: float64Verifying sum>>> sum(ugds)16200904.

0>>> ugds.


0Verifying max>>> max(ugds)151558.

0>>> ugds.


0Verifying min>>> min(ugds)0.

0>>> ugds.


0Verifying abs>>> abs(ugds).

head()0 4206.

01 11383.

02 291.

03 5451.

04 4811.

0Name: ugds, dtype: float64>>> ugds.


head()0 4206.

01 11383.

02 291.

03 5451.

04 4811.

0Name: ugds, dtype: float64Time the performance of eachLet’s see if there is a performance difference between each method.

sum performance>>> %timeit sum(ugds)644 µs ± 80.

3 µs per loop>>> %timeit -n 5 ugds.

sum()164 µs ± 81 µs per loopmax performance>>> %timeit -n 5 max(ugds)717 µs ± 46.

5 µs per loop>>> %timeit -n 5 ugds.

max()172 µs ± 81.

9 µs per loopmin performance>>> %timeit -n 5 min(ugds)705 µs ± 33.

6 µs per loop>>> %timeit -n 5 ugds.

min()151 µs ± 64 µs per loopabs performance>>> %timeit -n 5 abs(ugds)138 µs ± 32.

6 µs per loop>>> %timeit -n 5 ugds.

abs()128 µs ± 12.

2 µs per loopPerformance discrepancy for sum, max, and minThere are clear performance discrepancies for sum, max, and min.

Completely different code is executed when these builtin Python functions are used as opposed to when the Pandas method is called.

Calling sum(ugds) essentially creates a Python for loop to iterate through each value one at a time.

On the other hand, calling ugds.

sum() executes the internal Pandas sum method which is written in C and much faster than iterating with a Python for loop.

There is a lot of overhead in Pandas which is why the difference is not greater.

If we instead create a NumPy array and redo the timings, we can see an enormous difference with the Numpy array sum outperforming the Python sum function by a factor of 200 on an array of 10,000 floats.

No Performance difference for absNotice that there is no performance difference when calling the abs function versus the abs Pandas method.

This is because the exact same underlying code is being called.

This is due to how Python chose to design the abs function.

It allows developers to provide a custom method to be executed whenever the abs function is called.

Thus, when you write abs(ugds), you are really calling ugds.


They are literally the same.

Guidance: Use the Pandas method over any built-in Python function with the same name.

Standardizing groupby AggregationThere are a number of syntaxes that get used for the groupby method when performing an aggregation.

I suggest choosing a single syntax so that all of your code looks the same.

The three components of groupbyTypically, when calling the groupby method, you will be performing an aggregation.

This is the by far the most common scenario.

When you are performing an aggregation during a groupby, there will always be three components.

Grouping column — Unique values form independent groupsAggregating column — Column whose values will get aggregated.

Usually numericAggregating function — How the values will get aggregated (sum, min, max, mean, median, etc…)My syntax of choice for groupbyThere are a few different syntaxes that Pandas allows to perform a groupby aggregation.

The following is the one I use.


groupby('grouping column').

agg({'aggregating column': 'aggregating function'})A buffet of groupby syntaxes for finding the maximum math SAT score per stateBelow, we will cover several different syntaxes that return the same (or similar) result for finding the maximum SAT score per state.

Let’s look at the data we will be using first.

>>> college[['stabbr', 'satmtmid', 'satvrmid', 'ugds']].

head()Method 1: Here is my preferred way of doing the groupby aggregation.

It handles complex cases.

>>> college.


agg({'satmtmid': 'max'}).

head()Method 2a: The aggregating column can be selected within brackets following the call to groupby.

Notice that a Series is returned here and not a DataFrame.

>>> college.



head()stabbrAK 503.

0AL 590.

0AR 600.

0AS NaNAZ 580.

0Name: satmtmid, dtype: float64Method 2b: The aggregate method is an alias for agg and can also be used.

This returns the same Series as above.

>>> college.



head()Method 3: You can call the aggregating method directly without calling agg.

This returns the same Series as above.

>>> college.



head()Major benefits of preferred syntaxThe reason I choose this syntax is that it can handle more complex grouping problems.

For instance, if we wanted to find the max and min of the math and verbal sat scores along with the average undergrad population per state we would do the following.

>>> df.


agg({'satmtmid': ['min', 'max'], 'satvrmid': ['min', 'max'], 'ugds': 'mean'}).


head(10)This problem isn’t solvable using the other syntaxes.

Guidance — Use df.

groupby('grouping column').

agg({'aggregating column': 'aggregating function'}) as your primary syntax of choiceHandling a MultiIndexA MultiIndex or multi-level index is a cumbersome addition to a Pandas DataFrame that occasionally makes data easier to view, but often makes it more difficult to manipulate.

You usually encounter a MultiIndex after a call togroupby when using multiple grouping columns or multiple aggregating columns.

Let’s create a result similar to the last groupby from above, except this time group by both state and religious affiliation.

>>> agg_dict = {'satmtmid': ['min', 'max'], 'satvrmid': ['min', 'max'], 'ugds': 'mean'}>>> df = college.

groupby(['stabbr', 'relaffil']).

agg(agg_dict)>>> df.


round(0)A MultiIndex in both the index and columnsBoth the rows and columns have a MultiIndex with two levels.

Selection and further processing is difficult with a MultiIndexThere is no magic extra functionality that a MultiIndex possesses (outside of some trickery).

They are harder to remember how to make selections from and more difficult to call other methods on.

I suggest working with DataFrames that have a simpler, single-level index.

Convert to a single level index — Rename the columns and reset the indexWe can convert this DataFrame so that only single-level indexes remain.

There is no direct way to rename columns of a DataFrame during a groupby (yes, something so simple is impossible with pandas), so we must overwrite them manually.

Let’s do that now.

>>>> df.

columns = ['min satmtmid', 'max satmtmid', 'min satvrmid', 'max satvrmid', 'mean ugds']>>> df.

head()From here, we can use the reset_index method to make each index level an actual column.

>>> df.


head()Guidance: Avoid using a MultiIndex.

Flatten it after a call to groupby by renaming columns and resetting the index.

The similarity between groupby, pivot_table, and crosstabSome users might be surprised to find that agroupby (when aggregating), pivot_table, and pd.

crosstab are essentially identical.

However, there are specific use cases for each, so all still meet the threshold for being included in a minimally sufficient subset of Pandas.

The equivalency of groupby aggregation and pivot_tablePerforming an aggregation with groupby is essentially equivalent to using the pivot_table method.

Both methods return the exact same data, but in a different shape.

Let’s see a simple example that proves that this is the case.

We will use a new dataset containing employee demographic information from the city of Houston.

>>> emp = pd.


csv')>>> emp.

head()Let’s use a groupby to find the average salary for each department by gender.

>>> emp.

groupby(['dept', 'gender']).


round(-3)We can duplicate this data by using a pivot_table.

>>> emp.

pivot_table(index='dept', columns='gender', values='salary', aggfunc='mean').

round(-3)Notice that the values are exactly the same.

The only difference is that the gender column has been pivoted so its unique values are now the column names.

The same three components of a groupby are found in a pivot_table.

The grouping column(s) are passed to the index and columns parameters.

The aggregating column is passed to the values parameter and the aggregating function is passed to the aggfunc parameter.

It’s actually possible to get an exact duplication of both the data and the shape by passing both grouping columns as a list to the index parameter.

>>> emp.

pivot_table(index=['dept','gender'], values='salary', aggfunc='mean').

round(-3)Typically, pivot_table is used with two grouping columns, one as the index and the other as the columns.

But, it can be used for a single grouping column.

The following produces an exact duplication of a single grouping column with groupby.

>>> df1 = emp.



round(0)>>> df2 = emp.

pivot_table(index='dept', values='salary', aggfunc='mean').

round(0)>>> df1.

equals(df2)TrueGuidance: use pivot_table when comparing groupsI really like to use pivot tables to compare values across groups and a groupby when I want to continue an analysis.

From above, it is easier to compare male to female salaries when using the output of pivot_table.

The result is easier to digest as a human and its the type of data you will see in an article or blog post.

I view pivot tables as a finished product.

The result of a groupby is going to be in tidy form, which lends itself to easier subsequent analysis, but isn’t as interpretable.

The equivalency of pivot_table and pd.

crosstabThe pivot_table method and the crosstab function can both produce the exact same results with the same shape.

They both share the parameters index, columns, values, and aggfunc.

The major difference on the surface is that crosstab is a function and not a DataFrame method.

This forces you to use columns as Series and not string names for the parameters.

Let’s see an example taking the average salary by gender and race.

>>> emp.

pivot_table(index='gender', columns='race', values='salary', aggfunc='mean').

round(-3)The crosstab function produces the exact same result with the following syntax.

>>> pd.

crosstab(index=emp['gender'], columns=emp['race'], values=emp['salary'], aggfunc='mean').

round(-3)crosstab was built for countingA crosstabulation (also known as a contingency table) shows the frequency between two variables.

This is the default functionality for crosstab if given two columns.

Let’s show this by counting the frequency of all race and gender combinations.

Notice that there is no need to provide an aggfunc.

>>> pd.

crosstab(index=emp['gender'], columns=emp['race'])The pivot_table method can duplicate this but you must use the size aggregation function.

>>> emp.

pivot_table(index='gender', columns='race', aggfunc='size')Relative frequency — the unique functionality with crosstabAt this point, it appears that the crosstab function is just a subset of pivot_table.

But, there is a single unique functionality that it posses that makes it potentially worthwhile to add to your minimally sufficient subset.

It has the ability to calculate relative frequencies across groups with the normalize parameter.

For instance, if we wanted the percentage breakdown by gender across each race we can set the normalize parameter to ‘columns’.

>>> pd.

crosstab(index=emp['gender'], columns=emp['race'], normalize='columns').

round(2)You also have the option of normalizing over the rows using the string ‘index’ or over the entire DataFrame with the string ‘all’ as seen below.

>>> pd.

crosstab(index=emp['gender'], columns=emp['race'], normalize='all').

round(3)Guidance: Only use crosstab when finding relative frequencyAll other situations where the crosstab function may be used can be handled with pivot_table.

It is possible to manually calculate the relative frequencies after running pivot_table so crosstab isn’t all that necessary.

But, it does do this calculation in a single readable line of code, so I will continue to use it.

pivot vs pivot_tableThere exists a pivot method that is nearly useless and can basically be ignored.

It functions similarly to pivot_table but does not do any aggregation.

It only has three parameters, index, columns, and values.

All three of these parameters are present in pivot_table.

It reshapes the data without an aggregation.

Let’s see an example with a new simple dataset.

>>> df = pd.


csv')>>> dfLet’s use the pivot method to reshape this data so that the fruit names become the columns and the weight becomes the values.

>>> df.

pivot(index='state', columns='fruit', values='weight')Using the pivot method, reshapes the data without aggregating or doing anything to it.

pivot_table, on the other hand, requires that you do an aggregation.

In this case, there is only one value per intersection of state and fruit, so many aggregation functions will return the same value.

Let’s recreate this exact same table with the max aggregation function.

>>> df.

pivot_table(index='state', columns='fruit', values='weight', aggfunc='max')Issues with pivotThere are a couple major issues with the pivot method.

First, it can only handle the case when both index and columns are set to a single column.

If you want to keep multiple columns in the index then you cannot use pivot.

Also, if any combination of index and columns appear more than once, then you will get an error as it does not perform an aggregation.

Let’s produce this particular error with a dataset that is similar to the above but adds two additional rows.

>>> df2 = pd.


csv')>>> df2Attempting to pivot this will not work as now the combination for both Texas and Florida with Oranges have multiple rows.

>>> df2.

pivot(index='state', columns='fruit', values='weight')ValueError: Index contains duplicate entries, cannot reshapeIf you would like to reshape this data, you will need to decide on how you would like to aggregate the values.

Guidance — Consider using only pivot_table and not pivotpivot_table can accomplish all of what pivot can do.

In the case that you do not need to perform an aggregation, you still must provide an aggregation function.

The similarity between melt and stackThe melt and stack methods reshape data in the same exact manner.

The major difference is that the melt method does not work with data in the index while stack does.

It’s easier to describe how they work with an example.

Let’s begin by reading in a small dataset of arrival delay of airlines for a few airports.

>>> ad = pd.


csv')>>> adLet’s reshape this data so that we have three columns, the airline, the airport and the arrival delay.

We will begin with the melt method, which has two main parameters, id_vars which are the column names that are to remain vertical (and not reshaped) and value_vars which are the column names to be reshaped into a single column.

>>> ad.

melt(id_vars='airline', value_vars=['ATL', 'DEN', 'DFW'])The stack method can produce nearly identical data, but it places the reshaped column in the index.

It also preserves the current index.

To recreate the data above, we need to set the index to the column(s) that will not be reshaped first.

Let’s do that now.

>>> ad_idx = ad.

set_index('airline')>>> ad_idxNow, we can use stack without setting any parameters to get nearly the same result as melt.

>>> ad_idx.

stack()airline AA ATL 4 DEN 9 DFW 5AS ATL 6 DEN -3 DFW -5B6 ATL 2 DEN 12 DFW 4DL ATL 0 DEN -3 DFW 10dtype: int64This returns a Series with a MultiIndex with two levels.

The data values are the same, but in a different order.

Calling reset_index will get us back to a single-index DataFrame.

>>> ad_idx.


reset_index()Renaming columns with meltI prefer melt as you can rename columns directly and you can avoid dealing with a MultiIndex.

The var_name and value_name parameters are provided to melt to rename the reshaped columns.

It’s also unnecessary to list out all of the columns you are melting because all the columns not found in id_vars will be reshaped.

>>> ad.

melt(id_vars='airline', var_name='airport', value_name='arrival delay')Guidance — Use melt over stack because it allows you to rename columns and it avoids a MultiIndexThe Similarity between pivot and unstackWe’ve already seen how the pivot method words.

unstack is its analog that works with values in the index.

Let’s look at the simple DataFrame that we used with pivot.

>>> df = pd.


csv')>>> dfThe unstack method pivots values in the index.

We must set the index to contain the columns that we would have used as the index and columns parameters in the pivot method.

Let’s do that now.

>>> df_idx = df.

set_index(['state', 'fruit'])>>> df_idxNow we can use unstack without any parameters, which will pivot the index level closest to the actual data (the fruit column) so that its unique values become the new column names.

>>> df_idx.

unstack()The result is nearly identical to what was returned with the pivot method except now we have a MultiIndex for the columns.

Guidance — Use pivot_table over unstack or pivotBoth pivot and unstack work similarly but from above, pivot_table can handle all cases that pivot can, so I suggest using it over both of the others.

End of Specific ExamplesThe above specific examples cover many of the most common tasks within Pandas where there are multiple different approaches you can take.

For each example, I argued for using a single approach.

This is the approach that I use when doing a data analysis with Pandas and the approach I teach to my students.

The Zen of PythonMinimally Sufficient Python was inspired by the Zen of Python, a list of 19 aphorisms giving guidance for language usage by Tim Peters.

The aphorism in particular worth noting is the following:There should be one– and preferably only one –obvious way to do it.

I find that the Pandas library disobeys this guidance more than any other library I have encountered.

Minimally Sufficient Pandas is an attempt to steer users so that this principle is upheld.

Pandas Style GuideWhile the specific examples above provide guidance for many tasks, it is not an exhaustive list that covers all corners of the library.

You may also disagree with some of the guidance.

To help you use the library I recommend creating a “Pandas style guide”.

This isn’t much different than coding style guides that are often created so that codebases look similar.

This is something that greatly benefits teams of analysts that all use Pandas.

Enforcing a Pandas style guide can help by:Having all common data analysis tasks use the same syntaxMaking it easier to put Pandas code in productionReducing the chance of landing on a Pandas bug.

There are thousands of open issues.

Using a smaller subset of the library will help avoid these.

Best of the APIThe Pandas DataFrame API is enormous.

There are dozens of methods that have little to no use or are aliases.

Below is my list of all the DataFrame attributes and methods that I consider sufficient to complete nearly any task.

AttributescolumnsdtypesindexshapeTvaluesStatistical MethodsallanycountdescribeidxmaxidxminmaxmeanmedianminmodenuniquesumstdvarNon-Aggretaion Statistical Methodsabsclipcorrcovcummaxcummincumprodcumsumdiffnlargestnsmallestpct_changeprodquantilerankroundSubset SelectionheadilocloctailMissing Value HandlingdropnafillnainterpolateisnanotnaGroupingexpandinggroupbypivot_tableresamplerollingJoining DataappendmergeOtherasfreqastypecopydropdrop_duplicatesequalsisinmeltplotrenamereplacereset_indexsampleselect_dtypesshiftsort_indexsort_valuesto_csvto_jsonto_sqlFunctionspd.









to_timedeltaConclusionI feel strongly that Minimally Sufficient Pandas is a useful guide for those wanting to increase their effectiveness at data analysis without getting lost in the syntax.


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