Feature Importance with Neural NetworkMake Machine Learning easy interpretable providing variable relationships explanationMarco CerlianiBlockedUnblockFollowFollowingJun 27Photo by Markus Spiske on UnsplashOne of the best challenge in Machine Learning tends to let model speak them self.
Not also is important to develop a strong solution with great predicting power, but also in lot of business applications is interesting to know how the model provides these results: which variables are engage the most, the presence of correlations, the possible causation relationships and so on.
These needs made Tree based model a good weapon in this field.
They are scalable and permits to compute variable explanation very easy.
Every software provide this option and each of us has at least once tried to compute the variable importance report with Random Forest or similar.
With Neural Net this kind of benefit is considered as taboo.
Neural Network are often seen as black box, from which is very difficult to extract usefull information for other purpose like feature explatations.
In this post I try to provide an elegant and clever solution, that with few lines of codes, permits you to squeeze your Machine Learnig Model and extract as much information as possible, in order to provide feature importance, individuate the significant correlations and try to explain causation.
THE DATASETGiven a real dataset we try to investigate which factors influence the final predition performances.
To achive this aim we took data from UCI Machine Learning Repository.
The privileged dataset was the Combined Cycle Power Plant Dataset, where were collected 6 years of data when the power plant was set to work with full load.
Features consist of hourly average variables: Ambient Temperature (AT), Ambient Pressure (AP), Relative Humidity (RH) and Exhaust Vacuum (V) to predict the net hourly electrical energy output (PE) of the plant.
The variables engaged are related by pearson correlation linkages as shown in the matrix below.
Correlation MatrixGRADIENT BOOSTING FEATURE IMPORTANCEWe start building a simple Tree based model in order to provide energy output (PE) predictions and compute the standard feature importance estimations.
This final step permits us to say more about the variable reltionships than a standard correlation index.
These numbers summarized the reduction in impurity index over all trees when a particular feature is pointed during internal space partition (in training phase).
Sklearn applies normalization in order to provide output summable to one.
It is also a free result, obtainable indirectly after training.
gb = GradientBoostingRegressor(n_estimators=100)gb.
shape), ['AT','V','AP','RH'])GradientBoosting Features ImportanceThis result is easy interpretable and seems to replicate the initial assumption made computing correlations with our target variable (last row of correlation matrix): higher the value, higher is the impact of this particular feature predicting our target.
Despite the goods results we achived with our Gradient Boosting we don’t want to completly depend by this kind of approach… We want to generalized the process of computing feature importance, let us free to develop another kind of Machine Learning model with the same flexibility and explainability power; making also a step further: provide evidence of the presence of significant casuality relationship among variables.
PERMUTATION IMPORTANCEThe models indentified for our experiment are doubtless Neural Networks for their reputation to be a black box algorithms.
In order to demistify this stereotype we’ll focus on Permutation Importance.
Its easy implementation, combined with its tangible understanding and adaptability, make it a consistent candidate to answer the question: What features have the biggest impact on predictions?Permutation importance is calculated after a model has been fitted.
So we have only to squeeze it and get what we want.
This method works on a simple principle: If I randomly shuffle a single feature in the data, leaving the target and all others in place, how would that affect the final predition performances?From this random reordering of varibles I expect to obtain:Less accurate predictions, since the resulting data no longer corresponds to anything observed in the real world;Worst performances, from the shuffle of the most important varibles.
This is because we are corrupting the natural structure of data.
If we, with our shuffle, break a strong relationship we’ll compromise what our model have learned during training, resulting in higher errors (high error = high importance).
Permutation Importance at workPratically speaking this is what’s happened in our real scenario…We chose an adequate Neural Net structure to model the hourly electrical energy output (EP).
Remember to scale also the target variable in a lower range: I classicaly subtracted mean and divided for standard deviation, this helps the train.
inp = Input(shape=(scaled_train.
shape,))x = Dense(128, activation='relu')(inp)x = Dense(32, activation='relu')(x)out = Dense(1)(x)model = Model(inp, out)model.
fit(scaled_train, (y_train – y_train.
std() , epochs=100, batch_size=128 ,verbose=2)At prediction stage the Gradient Boosting and the Neural Net achive the same performance in terms of Mean Absolute Error, respectively 2.
92 and 2.
90 (remember to reverse predictions).
At this point we ended with training and let’s start to randomly sample.
We compute shuffle of every feature on validation data (4 times in total = 4 explicative variables) and provide error estimations at each step; remember to return the data to the original order at every step.
Then I plot the MAE we achived at every shuffle stage as percentage variation from the original MAE (around 2,90)plt.
shape), (final_score – MAE)/MAE*100)plt.
shape), ['AT','V','AP','RH'])Permutation Importance as percentage variation of MAEThe graph above replicates the RF feature importance report and confirms our initial assumption: the Ambient Temperature (AT) is the most important and correlated feature to predict electrical energy output (PE).
Despite Exhaust Vacuum (V) and AT show a similar and high correlation relationship with PE (respectively 0.
87 and 0.
95), they have a different impact at prediction stage.
This phenomenon is a soft exemple of how not always an high correlation (in pearson term) is synonymous of high explainability power.
CAUSATION RELATIONSHIPSProve correlation, in order to avoid spurious relationships, is always an insidious operation.
At the same time, it is difficult to show evidence of casuality behaviours.
In literature there are lot of methods to prove casuality.
One of the most important is the Granger Casuality Test.
This technique is widely applied in time series domain for determining whether one time series is useful in forecasting another: i.
demostrate (according to an F-test on lagged values) that it adds explanatory power to the regression.
Indirectly this is what we have already done computing Permutation Importance.
Shuffling every variable and looking for performance variations, we are proving how much explicative power has this feature to predict a desired target.
In order to prove causation, what we have to do now is to demostrate that data shuffle provides a significative evidence in performance variation.
We operate on the final predictions, achived without and with shuffle, and verify if there is a difference in mean among the two prediction population.
It means that the mean predictions with shuffle might as well be observed by any random subgroup of predictions.
So that’s exactly what we’ll do for every feature: we’ll merge prediction with and without permutation, we’ll randomly sample a group of predictions and calculate the difference between their mean value and the mean values of the prediction without shuffle.
seed(33)id_ = 0 #feature indexmerge_pred = np.
hstack([shuff_pred[id_], real_pred])observed_diff = abs(shuff_pred[id_].
mean() – merge_pred.
mean())extreme_values = sample_d = for _ in range(10000): sample_mean = np.
mean() sample_diff = abs(sample_mean – merge_pred.
append(sample_diff >= observed_diff) np.
sum(extreme_values)/10000 #p-valueIn order to have all under control, it’s a good choice to visualize the results of our simultaions.
We plot the distibution of the simulated mean differences (blue bar) and mark the real observed difference (red line).
We can see that for AT there is evidence for a difference in mean with prediction made without shuffle (low p-value: below 0.
The other variables don’t bring a significative improvement in mean.
Simulation distributions and relative p-valuesCorrelation doesn’t always imply causation!.With this in mind, we proved causation in term of ability of a selected feature to add explicative power.
We’ve recreated, with our knowledge of statistician and programmer, a way to prove this concept making use of our previous findings made with permutation importance, adding information about the relationships of our variables.
SUMMARYIn this post I’ve introduced Permutation Importance, an easy and clever tecnique to compute feature importance.
It’s useful with every kind of model (I use Neural Net only as personal choice) and in every problem (an analog procedure is applicable in a classification task: remember to choose an adequate loss measure when computing permutation importance, like cross-entropy, avoiding the ambiguous accuracy).
We’ve also used the permutations to present a method that proves casuality among variables hacking the p-value!CHECK MY GITHUB REPOKeep in touch: Linkedin.